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Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity.

The International journal of developmental biology | June 25, 2009 |

Plikus, Maksim V | Widelitz, Randall B | Maxson, Rob | Chuong, Cheng-Ming
Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Abstract

The control of hair growth in the adult mammalian coat is a fascinating topic which has just begun to be explored with molecular genetic tools. Complex ... ield of regenerative medicine. The unexpected links with Bmp2 expression in subcutaneous adipocytes has implications for systems biology and Evo-Devo.

The control of hair growth in the adult mammalian coat is a fascinating topic which has just begun to be explored with molecular genetic tools. Complex hair cycle domains and regenerative hair waves are present in normal adult (> 2 month) mice, but more apparent in mutants with cyclic alopecia phenotypes. Each hair cycle domain consists of initiation site(s), a propagating wave and boundaries. By analyzing the dynamics of hair growth, time required for regeneration after plucking, in situ hybridization and reporter activity, we showed that there is oscillation of intra-follicular Wnt signaling which is synchronous with hair cycling, and there is oscillation of dermal bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling which is asynchronous with hair cycling. The interactions of these two rhythms lead to the recognition of refractory and competent phases in the telogen, and autonomous and propagating phases in the anagen. Boundaries form when propagating anagen waves reach follicles which are in refractory telogen. Experiments showed that Krt14-Nog mice have shortened refractory telogen and simplified wave dynamics. Krt14-Nog skin grafts exhibit non-autonomous interactions with surrounding host skin. Implantation of BMP coated beads into competent telogen skin prevents hair wave propagation around the bead. Thus, we have developed a new molecular understanding of the classic early concepts of inhibitory "chalone", suggesting that stem cells within the hair follicle micro-environment, or other organs, are subject to a higher level of macro-environmental regulation. Such a novel understanding has important implications in the field of regenerative medicine. The unexpected links with Bmp2 expression in subcutaneous adipocytes has implications for systems biology and Evo-Devo.

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Fig 1. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f1
Fig 1. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 1

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Fig 2. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
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Fig 2. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 2

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Fig 3. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
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Fig 3. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 3

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Fig 4. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f4
Fig 4. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 4

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Fig 5. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f5
Fig 5. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 5

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Fig 6. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f6
Fig 6. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 6

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Fig 7. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f7
Fig 7. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 7

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Fig 8. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f8
Fig 8. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 8

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Fig 9. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f9
Fig 9. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 9

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Fig 10. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f10
Fig 10. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 10

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Fig 11. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f11
Fig 11. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 11

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Fig 12. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f12
Fig 12. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 12

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Fig 13. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.
Nihms131491f13
Fig 13. Plikus, Widelitz, et al. "Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity." The International journal of developmental biology 53.5-6 (2009): 857-68. Web.

Fig 13

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